Lake Malawi is one of the three rift lakes of Eastern Africa, along with Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria, and stretches 360 miles from north to south. As typical of utaka, Copadichromis azureus has bright blue males (shown) and duller females that are silvery with dark spots.  The best time and weather to travel to Malawi 2020. Metal heaters are recommended  Another smaller depression in the far north reaches a depth of 528 m (1,732 ft). Ecological Modelling 221: 713–727. Recent research in the African Great Lakes: Fisheries, biodiversity and cichlid evolution. Gwendolen disabled the German boat with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres (2,000 yd). Diplotaxodon, one of the very few cichlid genera that occurs offshore in relatively deep water. Lake Malawi has two inhabited islands: Likoma Island [photo below] and Chizumulu Island. Lake Malawi is home to the greatest number of fish species among all the lakes on Earth, including 1,000 species of cichlids.Lake Malawi is shared by 3 countries: Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania. ). , The Portuguese trader Candido José da Costa Cardoso was the first European to visit the lake in 1846. This is called a divergent plate tectonics boundary. A survey in Monkey Bay in 1964 found two endemic species of snails of the genus (B. nyassanus and B. succinoides) in the lake, and two non-endemic species (B. globosus and B. forskalli) in lagoons separated from it. Note that these seasonal averages are in contrast with those observed in Malawi lake in the month of april with a maximum record of 92°F in 2014 and a minimum record of 67°F in 2009.  She normally serves the southern part of the lake but if Ilala was out of service she operated the route to Karonga.  A water chemistry resembling the current conditions only appeared about 60,000 years ago. Smaller tanks can go with a single heater, whereas larger tanks should use two. ; and A.S. Cohen (2011). At the lower end of this scale, the fish may be less aggressive, but also less active and less inclined to breed. It was revealed that approximately 50 litres of non radioactive material leaked into a local creek. , Lake Malawi is noted for being the site of evolutionary radiations among several groups of animals, most notably cichlid fish.  Male chambo have unique genital tassels when breeding, which aid in egg fertilisation in a manner comparable to the egg-spots on the anal fin of haplochromines. Current estimates indicate that more than 1,000 species of tropical fish are present in the lake, including 350 fish that are unique to this ecosystem. the weather in Malawi lake in october is quite dry ; it hardly ever rains (0.7in of precipitation over 4 days).  They lay their eggs at the water's surface and the adults die. Segers, H.; and Martens, K; editors (2005). , Lake Malawi is famous for the huge swarms of tiny, harmless lake flies, Chaoborus edulis.  Lake Malawi is home to more species of fish than any other lake, including at least 700 species of cichlids. Ruaha (a currently undescribed species from Great Ruaha River), and these two separated between 2.13 and 6.76 million years ago (mya). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303: 71–80. , At a genus level, most of these are widespread in Africa, but Bathyclarias is entirely restricted to the lake. The lake’s middle line and its northern and eastern shores form much of Malawi’s boundary with Tanzania and Mozambique.  A drop in the lake's water level represents another threat, and is believed to be driven by water extraction by the increasing human population, climate change and deforestation. It is the 9th largest lake in the world and is located between Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania. "Rapid drop in Lake Malawi's water levels drives down fish stocks", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T60856A155041757.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T61293A148647939.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T60760A148648312.en, "Rangers struggle to save endangered fish in Lake Malawi".  Later, after experiencing the unpredictable and extremely violent gales that sweep through the area he also referred to it as the Lake of Storms. During those months, Lake Malawi water temperature does not drop below 68°F/20°C and therefore suitable for comfortable swimming. Salamander Books, London & New York.  There are at least 700 cichlid species in Lake Malawi, with some estimating that the actual figure is as high as 1,000 species. Lake Malawi is one of the African Great Lakes. Barron's Educational Series. What Is the Chemical Composition of Lake Malawi Water? Cohen; Stone; Beuning; Park; Reinthal; Dettman; Scholz; Johnson; King; Talbot; Brown; and Ivory (2007).  Other species that support important fisheries include the Lake Malawi sardine (Engraulicypris sardella) and the large kampango catfish (Bagrus meridionalis). Over the past six decades, the temperature of the deep Loiselle, P.V. ", February 2020, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (.  In 2012, Malawi's oil exploration initiative brought the issue to the fore, with Tanzania demanding that exploration cease until the dispute was settled. Here you will find the 14 day weather forecast for Lake Malawi. This change, first noticed in the mid-1980s, is possibly related to a decline in snail-eating cichlids (for example, Trematocranus placodon) due to overfishing and/or a new strain of the bilharzia parasite. A Fishkeepers Guide to African Cichlids, p. 97. 3.  During the peak of the low-water period between 1390 and 1860 AD, it may have been 120–150 m (390–490 ft) below current water levels. Water temperatures are calculated based on the data over the past 10 years. Pp. In recent years she has often been out of service, but when operational she runs between Monkey Bay at the southern end of the lake to Karonga on the northern end, and occasionally to the Iringa Region of Tanzania. Note that these seasonal averages are in contrast with those observed in Malawi lake in july with a maximum record of 90°F in 2015 and a minimum record of 59°F in 2009. She later served as a ferry and is currently being renovated into a mobile clinic at Monkey Bay.  The southern half of the lake is shallower; less than 400 m (1,300 ft) in the south-central part and less than 200 m (660 ft) in the far south.  The IUCN recognises 117 species of Malawi cichlids as threatened; some of these have tiny ranges and may be restricted to rocky coastlines only a few hundred metres long. There are boats and boards of all types available to have fun with and to explore the waters, islands and beaches of the lake. Geographical ancestry of Lake Malawi’s cichlid fish diversity. Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africas.  Pelagic zooplanktonic species include two cladocerans (Diaphanosoma excisum and Bosmina longirostris), three copepods (Tropodiaptomus cunningtoni, Thermocyclops neglectus and Mesocyclops aequatorialis), and several ostracods (including both described and undescribed species). Darwall; Allison; Turner; and Irvine (2010). You can choose the units of measurement for displaying data - in Celsius or Fahrenheit.  However, during the rainy season months of January to March, the waters are more muddy due to muddy river inflows. Tanzania claims that the international border runs through the middle of the lake. , 1.  He also referred to it by a pair of nicknames: Lake of Stars and Lake of Storms. The average water temperature in Lake Malawi in winter reaches 28°C/82.4°F, in spring 28°C/82.4°F, in summer the average temperature rises to 25°C/77°F, and in autumn it is 26°C/78.8°F. Water parameters. The first step to setting up the perfect Malawi aquarium is recreating these water conditions in your tank. On the evolution of Gomphocythere (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in Lake Nyassa/ Malawi (East Africa), with the description of 5 new species. Lett. Water temperature in Lake Malawi is expected to drop to 82.9°F/28.3°C in the next 10 days.  The lake has shorelines on western Mozambique, eastern Malawi, and southern Tanzania. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 163–196. "Mozambique’s Lake Niassa declared reserve and Ramsar site", https://futureclimateafrica.org/resource/brief-projecting-future-water-availability-inlake-malawi-and-the-shire-river-basin/, "Lake Malawi's threshold behaviour: A stakeholder-informed model to simulate sensitivity to climate change", https://futureclimateafrica.org/resource/how-can-we-improve-the-use-of-information-for-a-climate-resilient-malawi/, "Marine Incursion: The Freshwater Herring of Lake Tanganyika Are the Product of a Marine Invasion into West Africa", "What Are The Primary Inflows And Outflows Of Lake Malawi? It is also the second deepest lake in Africa, after Lake Tanganyika, which is located 350 kilometers (220 miles) to the northwest. Water temperature for Malawi cichlids Malawi Cichlids can be kept at a temperature of 24-26°C (75-79°F), although some other cichlids may prefer slightly warmer Or cooler environments, so always check on the requirements of fish before you buy. It has about 1,500 kilometers (930 miles) of shoreline. The climate comfortable around this city may. The Lake Malawi National Park is located at the southern end of the lake. The ferry MV Mtendere entered service in 1980. Distribution and Biology of Chambo (Oreochromis spp.) Recreating a Lake Malawi biotope to host cichlids became quite popular in the aquarium hobby. , MV Chauncy Maples began service on the lake in 1901 as the SS Chauncy Maples: a floating clinic and church for the Universities' Mission to Central Africa. Lake Malawi is a meromictic lake (water layers do not mix). Schistosomiasis. The wild population of fish is increasingly threatened by overfishing and water pollution. ann. , The second group, the tilapia, comprises only six species in two genera in Lake Malawi: The redbreast tilapia (Coptodon rendalli), a widespread African species, is the only substrate-spawning cichlid in the lake. The water has a hardness level of GH 7 and KH 10-12. 119–140 in: Rokni, M.B., editor. Morris, B. 4. van Huis, A.; H. van Gurp; and M. Dicke (2012). The climate in may in Malawi lake is rather dry ; it hardly ever rains (0.8in of rainfall over 5 days). December average water temperature in Lake Malawi is 83.1°F/28.4°C, the minimum temperature is 80.8°F/27.1°C, and the maximum is 84.9°F/29.4°C. Fish Biology 55(2): 405–419. Thus, the mean temperature average on this month of july in Malawi lake is 74°F. On this month of july, day length in Malawi lake … , Lake Malawi is a meromictic lake, meaning that its water layers do not mix. Afr. (2004). Teugels (1999). Smith (2000).  The oxygen limit is at a depth of approximately 250 m (820 ft), effectively restricting fish and other aerobic organisms to the upper part.  When they pupate they float to the surface and transform into adult flies. Despite reports in local media of radioactive contamination the government conducted independent scientific tests on the local river system and found that there was no effect on the environment despite the contrary reports in some parts of the local media. Whole year UV Index table for Malawi ☀ Water Temperature in localities in Malawi Weather phenomena recorded in previous years in Malawi ☃ Long-term 30 day weather forecast for Malawi ☔ Malawi month-by-month travel guide to weather conditions and best times to visit.  , The dispute came to a head in 1967 when Tanzania officially protested to Malawi; however nothing was settled. (1992). roy. , Lake Malawi is home to a total of four snail species in the genus Bulinus, which is a known intermediate host of bilharzia. The general hardness in Lake Malawi is not as high as many might think - around 7 degrees GH. Freshwater Forum 20(1): 4–64.  Her operator was the Tanzania Railway Corporation Marine Division until 1997, when it became the Marine Services Company Limited. A revision of the freshwater crabs of Lake Kivu, East Africa. Paleoecological response of ostracods to early Late Pleistocene lake-level changes in Lake Malawi, East Africa. Nimbochromis livingstonii is a piscivorous hap that is famous for playing dead to lure prey close. Current water temperature Lake Malawi. Bathymetric map of Lake Malawi, East Africa, showing isobaths in 100-m intervals. The permanent stratification of Lake Malawi's water and the oxic-anoxic boundary (relating to oxygen in the water) are maintained by moderately small chemical and thermal gradients. Sustainable water resources development of Malawi needs a thorough assessment of the impact of climate change on the future water levels of Lake Malawi because Lake Malawi together with its outflowing Shire river water system is Malawi’s most important water resource for hydropower generation, water supply for industrial and domestic use in the city of Blantyre and its surrounding … Later in colonial times, two jurisdictions were established. In Lake Malawi, the water temperature is increasing while the lake level drops.  More recently, the disease has become a problem in the lake itself as the endemic B. nyassanus has become an intermediate host. Weather forecast Lake Malawi this week.  This large cichlid mainly feeds on macrophytes. , The water levels have varied dramatically over time, ranging from almost 600 m (2,000 ft) below current level to 10–20 m (33–66 ft) above. , In 1954, an agreement was signed between the British and the Portuguese making the middle of the lake their boundary with the exception of Chizumulu Island and Likoma Island, which were kept by the British and are now part of Malawi.  The Malawi haplochromines are mouthbrooders, but otherwise vary extensively in general behaviour and ecology. Know your holiday weather - with Zoover!  The climate in the lake region is already experiencing changes, with the temperatures predicted to increase throughout the country. Molecular Evolution and Adaptive Radiation, p. 598. The Malawi blue crab, Potamonautes lirrangensis (syn. Deep-water warming trend in Lake Malawi, East Africa Fig. Geol. Conductivity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen profiles from Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa), East Africa, provide a modern snapshot of water column characteristics during January, 1992. Your comments for this place (water quality, сrowds, service etc. The sister species to the Malawi haplochromines is Astatotilapia sp. Stauffer, J.R.; and H. Madsen (2012). The lake has a total surface area of about 29,600 square kilometres (11,400 sq mi). , Lake Malawi is home to 28 species of freshwater snails (including 16 endemics) and 9 bivalves (2 endemics, Aspatharia subreniformis and the unionid Nyassunio nyassaensis). It is the 9th largest lake in the world and the third largest lake in Africa by surface area. , The partition of the lake's surface area between Malawi and Tanzania is under dispute. Many common and rare aquarium species of African cichlid… Our report for Lake Malawi is compiled using satellite data together with in-situ observations to get the most reliable daily data of water temperatures, current temperatures and weather forecasts. Anseaume, L.; and G.G. , The cichlids of the lake are divided into two groups and the vast majority of the species are haplochromines. "No harm caused by Paladin mine Kayerekera – Malawi govt". Besides being a home to fish, Lake Malawi is also a habitat for wildlife like such as crocodiles, hippopotamus, monkeys and fish eagles. Many mbuna cichlids are regularly stocked and sold by pet shops. For more information and forecast for a few days, go to the weather forecast Lake Malawi, These figures shows the minimum, maximum and average monthly water temperature in Lake Malawi. The Tanzanian ferry MV Songea was built in 1988. The Nonendemic Haplochromine Cichlids of Lake Malawi. , The Lake Malawi National Park is located at the southern end of the lake. , The lake's water is alkaline (pH 7.7–8.6) and warm with a typical surface temperature between 24 and 29 °C (75–84 °F), while deep sections typically are about 22 °C (72 °F). The lake`s water is alkaline (pH 7.7 - 8.6) and warm with atypical surface temperature between 24 and 29 °C (75 - 84 °F). Turner, G.F.; and N.C. Mwanyama (July 1992). As a result, you will be able to get a fairly accurate idea about the average water temperature for this day.To find out what the water temperature was in Lake Malawi any day over a period of the last ten years, select the month: What is the ideal temperature for swimming? You can view the weather statistics for all the month, but also by using the tabs for the beginning, the middle and the end of the month.  The earliest divergence within the Malawi haplochromines occurred between 1.20 and 4.06 mya, but most radiations in this group are far younger; in extreme cases species may have diverged only a few hundred years ago. The field workers, who spent many hours on and in the lake, did not find either B. globosus or B. forskalli in the lake itself.  The Lake of Stars nickname came after Livingstone observed lights from the lanterns of the fishermen in Malawi on their boats, that resemble, from a distance, stars in the sky.  If you have materials on this place, suggestions or descriptions of excursions or interesting places and you want to place them here, then send to firstname.lastname@example.org. ), Dept. shiranus. Lake Malawi is the home of more species of fish than any other lake in the world, including over 1000 species of cichlids. , Malawi is one of the major Rift Valley lakes and an ancient lake. , Lake Malawi is between 560 kilometres (350 mi) and 580 kilometres (360 mi) long, and about 75 kilometres (47 mi) wide at its widest point. Lake Malawi In Karonga , located in the far north and on the shores of the lake, the daily average temperature is 25.5 °C (78 °F) in January, 22 °C (72 °F) in July, and … Sturmbauer; Baric; Salzburger; Rüber; and Verheyen (2001). "How many species of cichlid fishes are there in African lakes?". The high seasonal norm is 81°F. The swimming season in Lake Malawi lasts from January to December, twelve months per year! The Insect Cookbook: Food for a Sustainable Planet, p. 31. Water temperature should be 23-28 o C (73-82 o F), so a middle value of 25-26 o C (77-79 o F) is probably ideal. Lowe-McConnell, R.H. (2003).  David Livingstone reached the lake in 1859, and named it Lake Nyasa.  The larvae are an important food source for fish, and the adult flies are important both to birds and local people, who collect them to make kungu cakes/burgers, a local delicacy with a very high protein content. The seasonal minimum is 77°F. Future Climate for Africa, "How can we improve the use of information for a climate-resilient Malawi? Mus. The lake lies in a valley formed by the opening of the East African Rift, where the African tectonic plate is being split into two pieces.  Evaporation accounts for more than 80% of the water loss from the lake, considerably more than the outflowing Shire River. The high seasonal norm is 86°F. If you have interesting photos of this place, you can upload them here.  These swarms, typically appearing far out over water, can be mistaken for plumes of smoke and were also noticed by David Livingstone when he visited the lake. Martens, K. (2003). The water is very clear for a lake and the visibility can be up to 20 m (66 ft), but slightly less than half this figure is more common and it is below … Delvaux, D. (1995).  The mbuna species tend to be relatively small, mostly less than 13 cm (5 in) long, and often both sexes are brightly colored with males having egg-shaped yellow spots on their anal fin (a feature particularly prevalent in the mbuna, but not exclusive to this group).  Both sides cite the Heligoland Treaty of 1890 between Great Britain and Germany concerning the border. Malawi kent een regenseizoen dat loopt van november tot en met april.  Occasional flare-ups of conflict occurred during the 1990s and in the 21st century. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi and the Potential Use of Indigenous Fish for Biological Control.  They are found at rocky outcrops, territorially aggressive (although commonly found in high densities) and often specialised aufwuchs feeders. 73–76. NOAA/WDS Paleoclimatology - Lake Malawi 700 Year TEX86 Surface Water Temperature Reconstruction This archived Paleoclimatology Study is available from the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), under the World Data Service (WDS) for Paleoclimatology. 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T44266A10884713.en. 1993 & 1994: 99–108. Besides water temperature, you can also get information about the weather for today, tomorrow and the upcoming days, surf forecast, as well as the data on sunrise/sunset and moonrise/moonset at a given point on any given day. This data the coastal surface water temperature in Lake Malawi. 6.  Within the Malawi haplochromines there are two main groups, the haps and the mbuna.  On the other hand, Malawi claims the whole of the surface of this lake that is not in Mozambique, including the waters that are next to the shoreline of Tanzania. The tropical waters of this lake are generally warm, with a surface temperature of 24-29 degrees Celsius and a deep-water temperature of 22 degrees Celsius year-round. Hydrobiologia 497(1–2): 121–144. The latter species are known intermediate hosts of bilharzia, and larvae of the parasite were detected in water containing these, but in experiments C. Wright of the British Museum of Natural History was unable to infect the two species endemic to the lake with the parasites.  Most Malawi cichlids are found in relatively shallow coastal waters, but Diplotaxodon has been recorded down to depths of 200–220 m (660–720 ft) and several (especially Diplotaxodon, Rhamphochromis and Copadichromis quadrimaculatus) are known from pelagic waters. All species from Lake Malawi thrive in the temperature range of 77-84 °F. On the rehabilitation of the clariid catfish genus Bathyclarias endemic to the East African Rift Lake Malawi. The weather in Malawi lake in the month of september comes from statistical datas on the last years. , Turner, Seehausen, Knight, Allender, and Robinson (2001). So instead, you can use our extensive historic data to check the water temperature in your chosen location on the day of your interest in different years. Allison; Irvine; Thompson; and Ngatunga (1996). Cumberlidge, N., and Meyer, K. S. (2011).  Many of these have become popular among aquarium owners due to their bright colors.  The Mozambique portion of the lake was officially declared a reserve by the Government of Mozambique on June 10, 2011, while in Malawi a portion of the lake is included in Lake Malawi National Park. The lake has three layers, with different densities due to variations in temperature at each depth. The wrangle in this dispute occurred when the British colonial government, just after they had captured Tanganyika from Germany, placed all of the waters of the lake under a single jurisdiction, that of the territory of Nyasaland, without a separate administration for the Tanganyikan portion of the surface. (1988). Lake of flies, or lake of fish? Aquarium Fish. Pilskaln, C. H. (2004). Read here to learn more about Lake Nyasa. (2017). It is the world's longest freshwater lake. Photos will be available to all users after verification by the moderator. 5.  in Lakes Malawi and Malombe. Thus, the mean temperature average in may in Malawi lake is 77°F. Destinations.  The remaining are five mouthbrooding species of Oreochromis; four chambo in the subgenus Nyasalapia (O. karongae, O. lidole, O. saka and O. squamipinnis) that are endemic to the Lake Malawi system, as well as the closely related O. shiranus, which also is found in Lake Chilwa. , The vast majority of the fish species in the lake are cichlids. The climate enjoyable in this location the month of october. The thermocline is located at a depth of 40–100 m (130–330 ft). Thus, the mean temperature average in april in Malawi lake is 79°F. 2. Like many mbuna, Pseudotropheus saulosi is a small cichlid where both male (blue and black) and female (yellow) are colorful. Thus, the mean temperature average in october in Malawi lake is 83°F. , In 2019, Martin Hobbs (SA), became the first person to swim the full length of Lake Malawi (54 days), as well as setting the world record for longest solo swim in a lake. , Lake Malawi has for millennia provided a major food source to the residents of its shores since its waters are rich in fish. Data in a table show Lake Malawi temperature today (December 12, 2020).  Songea plies weekly between Liuli and Nkhata Bay via Itungi and Mbamba Bay. Interesting seasonal highlights of Malawi. The seasonal minimum is 74°F. Abstract—We use historic water temperature measurements to deﬁne a deep-water warming trend in Lake Malawi, East Africa. It is the fourth largest fresh water lake in the world by volume, the ninth largest lake in the world by area—and the third largest and second deepest lake in Africa. Lake Malawi has water temperatures that vary from 70 to 80 degrees so a heater is probably a good idea. The renovation was expected to be complete during the first half of 2014, but was halted in 2017. The average water temperature in Lake Malawi in winter reaches 82.4°F/28°C, in spring 82.4°F/28°C, in summer the average temperature rises to 77°F/25°C, and in autumn it is 78.8°F/26°C. pH 7.5-8.4 is ideal with an almost pristine (near 0 ppm) ammonia and ammonium nitrite content. About 83% of the lake’s annual water loss comes through evaporation, leaving the lake sensitive to outside influences such as rainfall, as it does not have a strong buffer of rivers and streams.  The ferry MV Ilala entered service in 1951. In addition to the table values, the graph below displays of changes average surface water temperature during the year. Water temperature in Lake Malawi today is 83.8°F/28.8°C. Givnish, T.J.; and K.J. Diets and food consumption rates of pelagic fish in Lake Malawi, Africa. The warmest water temperature in Lake Malawi in July is 25.2°C/77.4°F, and the coldest water temperature in July is 23.5°C/74.3°F. Lake Level Fluctuations Synchronize Genetic Divergences of Cichlid Fishes in African Lakes. "Seasonal and Interannual Particle Export in an African Rift Valley Lake: A 5-Yr Record from Lake Malawi, Southern East Africa". Temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration of the water column generally decrease with depth from over 28° C and over 80% saturation at the surface to just below 22.7° C and anoxic conditions … Fossorochromis rostratus is an "aberrant" hap that often sifts mouthfuls of sand to extract small food organisms. Among the most popular are the four species of chambo, consisting of any one of four species in the subgenus Nyasalapia (Oreochromis karongae, O. lidole, O. saka and O. squamipinnis), as well as the closely related O.  Concerns have been raised over the future climate change impacts of Lake Malawi due to the recent decline in lake levels and the overall drying trend.  Adult male haps generally display bright colors, while juveniles of both sexes and adult females typically show a silvery or grey coloration with sometimes irregular black bars or other markings.  The second main haplochromine group are the mbuna, a name used both locally and popularly, which means "rockfish" in Tonga. centr., Tervuren (Belg. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. Mol Biol Evol 18(2): 144–154. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(42): 16422-16427. , Wildlife found in and around Lake Malawi or Nyasa includes Nile crocodiles, hippopotamus, monkeys, and a significant population of African fish eagles that feed off fish from the lake. Sytsma, editors (1997). Genner; Ngatunga; Mzighani; Smith; and Turner (2015). The largest river flowing into it is the Ruhuhu River, and there is an outlet at its southern end, the Shire River, a tributary that flows into the very large Zambezi River in Mozambique.